Plant Magazine of Botanical-online September 2017

Natural remedies

Marjoram plant characteristics

(Origanum majorana = Majorana hortensis)

CHARACTERISTICS OF MARJORAM

drawing

Drawing of the plant with a detail of a flower and the whole plant

Common English name: Marjoram, knotted majoram, sweet majoram, italian oregano

Botanical classification
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta
Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta
Flower plants
Class Dicotyledonous
Subclass Asteridae
Order Lamiales
Family Lamiaceae
Subfamily Nepetoideae
Tribe Mentheae
Gender Origanum
Species O. majorana

Common name in other languages:

- Spanish / Español: Mejorana, mayorana, orégano mayor, almoradijo, amáraco.

- Catalan / Català: Majorana, marduix, almorabú, almoraduix, amàrac

- Galician / Galego: Maiorana

- Portuguese / Português: Manjerona

- Basque / Euskara: Mendaroa

- Italian / Italiano: Maggiorana

- Romanian / Română: Maghiranul

- French / Français: Marjolaine cultivée, origan des jardins

- German / Deutsch: Artenmajoran, Meiran, Wurstkraut

- Polish/ Polski: Lebiodka majeranek

- Dutch /Nederlands: Echte marjolein

- Danish / Dansk: Have-Merian

- Norwegian /Norsk bokmål: Merian

- Finnish /Suomi: Maustemeirami

- Swedish /Svenska: Mejram

- Turkish / Türkçe: Mercanköşk

- Русский / Russian: Майора́н

Scientific name of the savory:Origanum majorana L. Majorana hortensis Moench

Family:Labiatae or Lamiaceae

Origin of marjoram

Marjoram is native to India and the Middle East (Persia), extended from antiquity throughout the Mediterranean region. The Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans knew this plant.

Marjoram habitat

Marjoram is adapted to the cold and temperate climates. It is a delicate plant, sensitive to frost and drought. Generally, we will find it cultivated or wildly scattered around the houses.

Marjoram geographical distribution

Eastern and Southern Europe, Southeast Asia, North Africa.

Marjoram plant description

Marjoram (Origanum majorana) is a perennial plant of the Labiatae or Lamiaceae family.

The plants belonging to this botanical family are characterized by having very aromatic essential oils in all parts of the plant. Other aromatic spices known in this family are: mint, thyme, sage, oregano or rosemary.

Initially, marjoram was considered as a variety of oregano (Origanum vulgare). Later studies have evidenced clear differences between these two plants, which belong to the same genus (Origanum) but they are distinct species.

Marjoram is a shrub, like most lamiaceae. It is characterized by erect, almost woody and quadrangular stems, another characteristic common in many Lamiaceae. The stem is branched, with several branches, becoming a relatively large bush, 30-50cm.width and 40-60cm.high.

Marjoram leaves are opposite, whole, oval and petiolated (attached to the stem by petiole). The foliage is tomentose, of whitish green color, due to a fine hairiness that covers all the leaves. 5 to 25mm. long and 7mm wide.

Marjoram has an inflorescence in the form of terminal branches. This type of inflorescence consists of small flowers grouped in the rachis or main axis of the inflorescence.

Flowers are tiny, sessile, with a short pedunculate and located on four tomentose bracts. Chalyx white, pink or purple, with a structure similar to the appearance of "lips", characteristic of the lamiaceae family. Flowers attract bees making this plant a meliferous one, that is to say, a plant that is profited by bees to get products that are turned to honey.

Marjoram fruit is a quadrangular achene, keeping some brown seeds inside This fruit only reaches maturity in temperate climates or warm seasons.

The whole plant gives off a pleasant smell, warm and bitter, reminiscent of the citrus and pine aromas.

Used parts of marjoram

- Leaves: because this plant possesses essential oils throughout the plant, the leaves are used, fresh or dried, to season dishes. Marjoram is part of some blends of spices such as Bouquet garni

- Flowers: the flowers of this plant are very appreciated among aromatic flowers. They are used to aromatize different types of culinary preparations (herbs of Provence, Bouquet garni) and aromatherapy.

- Essential oil: it is used in aromatherapy and perfumery.

Marjoram composition

Aromatic components of Marjoram per 100 gr.

Terpinen-4-ol

7.826ppm

Carvacrol

6.261ppm.

Linalol

5.263ppm.

Caryophyllene

1.307ppm.

Eugenol

1.152ppm.

Terpinene

1.050ppm

Chavicol

791ppm.

Phellandrene

155ppm

Pinene

86ppm

Carvone

69ppm.

- Essential oil (0.7-3%): terpineol, thymol, carvacrol, linalool, caryophyllene, phenolic acids, flavonoids and hydroquinone.

Note: the concentration of each component may vary depending on the plant collection season.

One study reports that marjoram has the highest content of thymol (38.4%) and sabinene (25.3%) in spring; Terpinen-4-ol (37%) is abundant in the plants harvested in summer; Terpinolene (43.1%) in autumn and sabinene (54.4%) in winter.

- Carbohydrates: pentosans

- Protein

- Fats

- Fiber

- Vitamins: beta-carotenes, vitamin C

- Minerals: boron, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, zinc

- Glucosides: arbutin or hydroxyquinone (leaves), apigenin-7-glucoside, dinatin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7-glycoside.

- Monoterpenes: limonene, terpinene, myrcene, phellandrene, pinene, linalool, carvacrol, thujene, humulene, cadinene, chavicol, citral, linalool, eugenol, geraniol, cymene, sabinene, carvone.

- Sesquiterpenes: cadinene, allo-aromadendrene, caryophyllene

- Phytosterols: beta-sitosterol

- Organic acids: caffeic acid, rosmarinic or labial acid, ursolic acid

- The plant contains tannins with antioxidant and astringent properties.

PUNTO ROJO More information on marjoram in the listing above

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This material is for informational purposes only. In case of doubt, consult the doctor.
"Botanical" is not responsible for damages caused by self-medication.

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