Plant Magazine of Botanical-online September 2017

Natural remedies

Oak species

SPECIES OF THE GENUS "QUERCUS"

DIFFERENT CLASSES OF OAK TREES

Among the approximately 600 species of the genus Quercus, they could be described as follows:

- Downy oak, pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens): Tree up to 15 m high, which can be found in Europe, Crimea and Turkey. The most abundant and pure populations are in the Pyrenees.

It is mainly characterized because the underside of the leaves is downy when young, ie has abundant hair,. Subsequently, usually leaving only those close to the nerves.

It has not too long fruits, with short stems, with half of the cup nut also pubescent. In the fall, the leaves turn ocher and remain on the tree throughout the winter (marcescent leaves) Its medicinal properties are similar to those of English oak.

Downy oak

Downy oak (Quercus pubescens)


- Gall Oak, Lusitanian Oak, Dyer's Oak (Quercus lusitanica = Quercus faginea): Up to 20 meters high, a native of the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. Adapted to withstand extreme conditions. It has small, bright green leaves on the top and pubescent on the underside. Its rather elongated fruits are used to feed livestock. It is used to treat vaginal warts and for the treatment of corns.


- Sessile oak (Quercus petraea = Quercus sessiflora): Central Europe and Southeast Europe that can measure 30 m. high. Has hardened leaves bright green on the top and pubescent on the underside with rounded lobes up to 15 cm. Up to 1500 m in the woods along with the English oak (Quercus robur) Widely used for the quality of its wood, used in herbal medicine to remove warts. From this species nutgalls are mainly obtained for the production of natural dyes


- French oak, English oak (Quercus robur): Up to 45 m in height. Erect stems with bark full of cracks and wrinkles, light gray in youth and darker as the tree gets older. leaves alternate, lobed, sessile, with rounded lobes and petioles very short, provided 2 atria to the larger base of the petiole up to about 12 cm. Fruit catkins, yellow-green. Acorns gathered in groups of 1-3 on the same stalk. (More information on its uses and features in the listing above)


- Cork oak (Quercus suber): Natural from Iberian Peninsula. It is the tree whose bark cork is obtained from. It can reach 15 m high. It presents leaves much like evergreen oak, a little more narrow and elongated. They are dark above and whitish below because of its dense green hairiness. In herbal medicine, in natural medicine it can be used with properties similar to French oak.

cork oak showing the cork

Trunk of cork oak showing the cork

- Sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima): Tree growing in Japan, Korea and China, which can reach 15 m. Its long leaves, up to 15 cm, are very similar to those of chesnut. In herbal medicine it is used as an astringent.


- White oak (Quercus alba): Tree from the United States and Canada that can reach 30 m. high. It has leaves up to 30 cm reaching purple hues in autumn. Its acorns are very small. It is one of the main trees for timber production in these countries, because it is very resistant to moisture and rot. It is used in herbal medicine as hemostatic, astringent, tonic and antiarthritic.


- Holm oak (Quercus ilex): Up to 20 m. erect stems gray. Elliptic leaves, bright green above, whitish below, up to 4 cm in length, with up to 11 pairs of lateral nerves. yellow flowers, gathered in hanging spikes. Fruit is a nut, (acorn) dark brown at maturity, bitter, inedible. Humid Mediterranean forests. In herbal medicine it can be used with properties similar to English oak.

holm oak
Photo of holm oak (Quercus ilex). Leaves and fruits (acorns)

- Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp ilex = Quercus ilex rotundifolia subsp ballota..): up to 15 m. erect stems gray. pubescent elliptical leaves with whitish green above and gray below, up to 4 cm long, with up to 8 pairs of lateral veins. yellow flowers, gathered in hanging spikes. Fruit dark brown at maturity, edible. dry Mediterranean forests. In herbal medicine can be used with properties similar to English oak.


- Turkish oak, Austrian oak (Quercus cerris) from Southern Europe and Turkey. It is a tree that can reach 36 m high. It has narrow gray-green leaves with irregular lobes.. In herbal medicine used for the treatment of tumors.


- Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera): Evergreen shrub up to 2 meters. Stalks of a grayish color. Leaves entire or slightly toothed, dark green with a thorny margin. The young leaves have a lighter green and hairy beneath. The fruit is a nucule (acorn) more globular than the rest of Quercus and with scaly cup, ripening occurs in the second year. In scrubs and dry places. In herbal medicine used for the treatment of tumors.


- Japanese Chinquapin (Quercus cuspidata): Tree native to China and Japan up to 25 m in height. Fruita with a distinctive odor that are pollinated by flies. It is used for the treatment of ascites or perineal dropsy, is the accumulation of fluid in the lower abdomen as a result of certain diseases such as cirrhosis, heart problems, tumors, etc.


- Daimyo oak (Quercus dentata): Deciduous tree from eastern Asia (Korea, Japan and China) up to 15 m in height. abundant leaves, irregularly lobed up to 30 cm. In herbal medicine the bark and dust from its gills is used as an astringent.


- Red oak (Quercus falcata): Tree native to the southeastern United States that can reach 25 m high. The young buds are oxide red which gives it its name. Leaves up to 20 cm with very pronounced lobes and dense hairs on the underside. It lives in acid and poor soils. In herbal medicine it is used for the treatment of cancer.


- Texas live oak, plateau oak (Quercus fusiformis): Named for the elongated shape of acorns. It lives in Texas where it forms thickets. The leaves have a tooth at the apex and some lateral teeth and have a great pubescence on the underside. It is used in herbal medicine to treat coughs, asthma and as a tonic.


- Gambel oak, scrub oak, oak brush, Rocky mountains white oak (Quercus gambelii) is an evergreen shrub that can measure from 4 to 9 meters. It occupies the slopes of the Rocky Mountains above 1500 m above sea level, forming a dense thicket where acorns are a good food source for many animals. It is used for treating cancer.

- Bluejack oak, cinnamon oak, upland willow oak (Quercus incana = Quercus cinerea): shrub up to about 3 meters high that grows in dry areas of the southeastern United States. Its name derives from the blue-green leaves. In herbal medicine is used as an astringent, as a diuretic and for the treatment of gonorrhea.


- Black oak, Eastern black oak (Quercus velutina): From the Eastern United States, it is quite cultivated in Europe. Its scientific name derives from the fact that it presents velvety buds. It is a tree that can reach 30 m high. dyes are extracted from its yellow inner bark. Its leaves are provided with pointed lobes can reach 30 cm in length. In herbal medicine it is used with properties similar to English oak.

Scientific list of Quercus species

Quercus acerifolia
Quercus acuminata
Quercus acuta
Quercus acutissima
Quercus aegilops macrolepis
Quercus agrifolia
Quercus alba
Quercus aliena
Quercus alnifolia
Quercus annulata
Quercus aquatica
Quercus aquifolioides
Quercus arizonica
Quercus arkansana
Quercus aucheri
Quercus austrina
Quercus ballota
Quercus berberidifolia
Quercus bicolor
Quercus borealis
Quercus boyntonii
Quercus buckleyi
Quercus bungeana
Quercus californica
Quercus calliprinos
Quercus canbyi
Quercus catesbaei
Quercus cedrosensis
Quercus cerris
Quercus chapmannii
Quercus chinensis
Quercus chrysolepis
Quercus coccifera
Quercus coccinea
Quercus conferta
Quercus cornelius-mulleri
Quercus crispula
Quercus cualensis
Quercus cuneata
Quercus cuspidata
Quercus daimio
Quercus densiflora
Quercus dentata
Quercus depressa
Quercus depressipes
Quercus dilatata
Quercus douglasii
Quercus dumosa
Quercus dumosa revoluta
Quercus durata
Quercus eduardii
Quercus edulis
Quercus ellipsoidalis
Quercus emoryi
Quercus engelmannii
Quercus faginea
Quercus falcata
Quercus floribunda
Quercus frainetto
Quercus fruticosa

Quercus fusiformis
Quercus gambelii
Quercus garryana
Quercus geminata
Quercus georgiana
Quercus glabra
Quercus glandulifera
Quercus glauca
Quercus graeca
Quercus gravesii
Quercus grisea
Quercus havardii
Quercus hinckleyi
Quercus hindsii
Quercus hintoniorum
Quercus hirtifolia
Quercus hispanica
Quercus hondurensis
Quercus humboldtii
Quercus humilis
Quercus hypoleucoides
Quercus hypoxantha

Quercus ilex
Quercus ilex ballota
Quercus ilicifolia
Quercus iltisii
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus incana
Quercus infectoria
Quercus inopina

Quercus intricata
Quercus ithaburensis macrolepis
Quercus john-tuckeri
Quercus kelloggii
Quercus laceyi
Quercus laevigata
Quercus laevis
Quercus lamellosa
Quercus lanata
Quercus lanuginosa
Quercus laurifolia
Quercus laurina
Quercus leucotrichophora
Quercus libani
Quercus lineata
Quercus lobata
Quercus lyrata
Quercus macranthera
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus macrolepis
Quercus marilandica
Quercus michauxi
Quercus michauxii
Quercus minima
Quercus minor
Quercus mohriana
Quercus mongolica
Quercus montana
Quercus muehlenbergii
Quercus muhlenbergii

Quercus myrsinaefolia
Quercus myrtifolia
Quercus nigra
Quercus nutalli
Quercus oblongifolia
Quercus obtusiloba
Quercus occidentalis
Quercus oglethorpensis
Quercus pachyphylla
Quercus palmeri
Quercus palustris
Quercus parvula
Quercus peduncularis
Quercus pedunculata
Quercus petraea
Quercus phellos
Quercus phillyreoides
Quercus polymorpha
Quercus pontica
Quercus prinoides
Quercus prinus
Quercus pseudococcifera
Quercus pubescens
Quercus pumila
Quercus pungens
Quercus pyrenaica
Quercus rhysophylla
Quercus robur
Quercus rotundifolia
Quercus rubra
Quercus rugosa
Quercus sadleriana
Quercus salicifolia
Quercus sapotaefolia
Quercus schneckii
Quercus schumardii
Quercus semecarpifolia
Quercus serrata
Quercus sessiliflora
Quercus sessilis
Quercus shumardii
Quercus sonomensis
Quercus stellata
Quercus suber
Quercus tardifolia
Quercus texana
Quercus tinctoria
Quercus tomentella
Quercus toumeyi
Quercus trojana
Quercus turbinella
Quercus undulata
Quercus utahensis
Quercus vacciniifolia
Quercus variabilis
Quercus vaseyana
Quercus velutina
Quercus virginiana
Quercus vulcanica
Quercus wislizeni

punto rojo More information on oak in the listing above

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