Plant Magazine of Botanical-online September 2017

Natural remedies

Restharrow properties

(Ononis spinosa )

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESTHARROW

Restharrow a very curious plant in etymology

Common name in English : Spiny restharrow, Bugrane, Petty whin, Cammock root,

Photo of restharrow

Photo of restharrow (Ononis spinosa)

Popular names in most languages refer to three concepts. On the one hand, the presence of their long and pointed spines, dangerous as the nails of a cat, able to draw the eye to anyone who approaches them to the face.

The second concept refers to the fact that many animals approach the same to scratch the skin, that's why its name as " peine de asno" (=ass comb).

The third type of names comes from the depth of its roots that makes it difficult to plow the ground when this grass is very abundant as well as its ability to get tangled around the plow or between the feet of the farmers, hence its Spanish names: " quiebra arados" (=breaking plows) or "detiene bueyes" (=stopping oxen)

In English, spiny restharrow is formed by "Spiny" (because of the long spines of this plant ) and "restharrow" (from "rest" and "harrow =plough"). "Bugrane" comes from French, which comes from vulgar latin "boveretina", composed of "bovis" (= ox) and "retinere" (=stop).

Naturally, at present, it does not present any problem for the power of a tractor, but it did not look like that in the past, so in many places it is known as: breaking plows,, parabuey, remora, in Portuguese "resta-boi" or in Basque" arrotuona "(= good to lift the plow) etc.

Common names in other languages

- Spanish / Castellano: Gatuña, gateña, uñas de gato, abreojos, yerba toro, espinilla, frannefirrino, balomaga, asnillo, peine de asno, quiebra arados, detiene bueyes, hierba de la estranguría...
- French / Français: Bugrane épineuse
- Catalan / Català: Gavó espinós, abriülls, agaó, ugó, adragó, afrontacabres, afrontacavadors, afrontallauradors., Candell, adrull
- Basque / Basque: Galdarron, itxiok orri, arrotuona, geldi orri,
- Galician / Galician: Gatunha, rilla-boi
- Portuguese / English: Kitten, Kitten, Cattle, Cattle, Cattle, Cat's Claw, Cat's Claw
- Italian / Italian: Arrestabue, bonaga, bulinaca, ononide, brugnecola
- Romanian / Română: Osul iepurelui
- German / Deutsch: Dornige Hauhechel
- Dutch / Nederlands: Kattendoorn
- Polish / Polski: Wilżyna ciernista
- Swedish / Svenska: Busktörne, stallört
- Turkish / Türkçe: Kayışkıran
- Russian / Русский: Стальник колючий

Scientific name: Ononis spinosa L.

According to Spanish doctor and botanist Andrés Laguna (1499 - 1559), the scientific name of the genus "Ononis" comes from the Greek "onos" meaning "donkey", because these animals feel a special appreciation towards this plant, which they use to scratch, to eat and to serve as toothpicks.

"Spinosa" comes from the Latin "spinosus= having spines" and refers to the thorns of its stems.

Synonyms: Bonaga antiquorum (L.) Medik.; Bonaga hircina (Jacq.) Medik.; Ononis antiquorum L.; Ononis arvensis subsp. maritima (Godr.) Nyman; Ononis brachystachya Vis.; Ononis campestris W.D.J.Koch & Ziz; Ononis decipiens Azn.; Ononis hircina Jacq.; Ononis inermis Huds.; Ononis legitima Delarbre; Ononis leucosepala Pau; Ononis maritima Dumort.; Ononis miniana Planellas; Ononis mitis Mill.; Ononis occidentalis Lange ex Willk. in Willk. & Lange; Ononis procurrens Wallr.; Ononis pungens Pomel; Ononis repens L.; Ononis vulgaris Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud

Family: Papilionaceae (= Fabaceae )

Habitat: Natural of Europe, West Asia and North Africa. It lives in grasslands, uncultivated lands, nitrified rudimentary soils (brownfield sites, crops, steep banks, etc.) and firm soils, generally of calcareous nature.

It blooms from June to September. It can be found practically throughout Europe, although it is rare in Scotland and absent in Ireland. It grows from sea level to 1800 meters in altitude.

Description of spiny restharrow

Crawling or ascending shrub of the Pea family (Papilionaceae or Fabaceae) between 30- 40 cm high.

Stems abundant and branched to the base, hairy on opposite faces with prominent spines.

Leaves trifoliate, short petiole, oval and basically toothed leaflets. Leaves with simple floral petiole.

Dark pink flowers, in pairs or isolated, with wings shorter than the keel. The flowers and the top of the plant stick slightly to the fingers when touching them, because they contains essential oils.

Fruits in legume longer than the calyx, in the form of ovoid pod, pendulum and very hairy.

Active components of Ononis spinosa

- Acids: Ferulic acid, gentisic acid, citric acid, gallic acid, homoprotocatechic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, synapic acid (root)

- Essential oils: anethole, menthol, trans-anethole, carvone (root)

- Phytosterols (whole plant) Campesterol, spinasterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol (root)

- Stanols: Cycloartenol (root)

- Flavonoids: apigenin (shoots), genistein, formononetine, quercetin, vitrexin (root) kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin,

- Tannins (Plant)

- Tripertenes: Alpha-onocerine (root) onocerine (plant)

- Glucosides: sucrose, onone, ononine, luteolin 7-O-glucoside (root)

What part of restharrow is used?

The part that has healing properties is the root. The roots of this plant should be harvested in autumn. Subsequently chopped and allowed to dry in the sun. Once dry, they have to be stored in plastic bags in a dry place.

Dosage of restharrow

- 10 to 12 gr / l of dry plant per day in the form of infusions

- Fluid extract: 1 to 4 grams per dose in several daily doses

- Mother tincture: 40 drops in three daily doses

TRADITIONAL USES OF RESTHARROW

- Healing properties: Traditionally it has been a very used plant, on which old doctors and botanists have attributed medicinal properties. Dioscorides (40-90 BC) refers to it, saying "The root bark causes urine, crumbles the stone and removes scabs" It also states that the decoction of the root serves to cure hemorrhoids and toothache.

The English physicist, astrologer and pharmacist Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654) in his book Complete Herbal says verbatim of it: "It is singularly good to provoke urine, when it has stopped, and to break and drive forth the stone, which the power of the bark of the root, taken in wine performs effectually ". He then continues: "The decoction thereof made with some vinegar, gargled in the mouth, eases the toothache, especially when it comes of rheum "... "the power of the roots strewed upon the brims of ulcers...causes them to heal the better."

- Magical Properties: In many parts of Europe restharrow has been given magical powers to prevent the magic spells from being fulfilled. In previous times a dry plant was placed on the lintel of a door so that the family that inhabited it was free of dangers, accidents, spells, quarrels and, above all, to protect them from thieves.

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF RESTHARROW (ONONIS SPINOSA)

Restharrow as an effective diuretic

The diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant, due to its richness in flavonoids, provide very interesting purification properties for the treatment of the following anomalies:

Remedies with restharrow in internal use

- Liquid retention: This plant's ability to boost urine can help remove fluid retained in the body, which helps to improve the symptoms of diseases such as dropsy, abdominal dropsy, arthritis or gout. (Make an infusion with a teaspoon of dried root (3-4 gr) per cup of water. Take two or three cups a day)

* Caution: Treatment for fluid retention should not be performed when it is due to heart or kidney failure.

- Dermatitis: The purifying capacity of Ononis spinosa is used to treat cases of dermatitis caused by toxins that appear on the skin. (Make an infusion with a teaspoon of dried root (3-4 gr) per cup of water. Take two or three cups a day)

- Jaundice: The previous treatment helps to improve the symptoms of jaundice because it cleanses the body of the toxins that cause it.

- Itchy skin: Itchy skin usually responds to the accumulation of toxins in the body. Treatments with depurative plants, such as restharrow, help eliminate the toxins that cause this itch. (Make an infusion with a teaspoon of dried root (3-4 gr) per cup of water. Take two or three cups a day)

- Mild urinary diseases: These same properties can be used in the treatment of mild diseases of the urinary system such as urethritis, nephritis, cystitis, prevention of kidney stones. (Apply the previous treatment.

* Caution: Do not apply if it has been confirmed that there are stones in the kidneys or in the gallbladder (This treatment is only indicated to expel the grit from the kidneys) In case of stones in the gallbladder, the use of this plant may favor the obstruction of the bile ducts.

* Do not administer in serious infections or with symptoms like dizziness, blood in the urine, pain when urinating, etc (consult with the doctor previously)

Preparations with Ononis root for external use

- Sore throat: The infusion of restharrow root serves as a deflator of tonsillitis (Perform gargles with the fluid resulting from an infusion of one tablespoon of dried plant per cup of water.

Toxicity of restharrow

At appropriate doses, no cases of toxicity have been documented

There are references of toxicity in animals. Specifically, cases of death by ingestion of the fruiting plant in nomadic lambs from western Sahara have been reported in this and other Ononis species.

Curiously, these plants do not affect sheep flocks that do not practice nomadic feeding, which become accustomed to this plant, so it does not produce toxic reactions.

Contraindications of restharrow

- Pregnancy and lactation: There are insufficient studies to guarantee their safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding, so it is advisable NOT to take this plant during these periods. On the other hand, restharrow is especially contraindicated during pregnancy because of its content in isoflavones.

- Children: It has not been studied its effects on children, reason why it is advised NOT to use in children under 12 years.

- Cardiac problems, hypertension or severe kidney disease: The use of this plant increases the production of fluids, so it should NOT be used in case of heart problems (heart failure or other heart disease), severe kidney disease (kidney failure, bile duct obstruction ) or hypertension (In the latter case, it can only used under prescription and medical control. This plant can decompensate the tensional values, so it requires medical follow-up)

- Administration of diuretics: If a patient takes diuretics, preparations of this plant should NOT be taken, because it can greatly enhance the effects of diuretics.

- People allergic to restharrow: The use of this plant can cause adverse reactions in people sensitive to its components. If you notice any negative effects, you should stop treatment.

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