Plant Magazine of Botanical-online September 2017

Natural remedies

Star anise plant

(Illicium verum)

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STAR ANISE

Common English name: Star anise, star anise seed, Chinese anise, Chinese star anise, badiam

star anise
Photo of star anise with seeds



Botanical classification
Plant classification
Kingdom Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta
Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta
Flower plants
Class Magnoliopsida
Dicotyledonous
Order Austrobaileyales
Family Illiciaceae
Gender Illicium
Species I. verum

Common name in other languages:

- Spanish / Castellano: Badiana or badianero, badián, badiana de la China (plant); anís de estrella, anís estrellado (fruit).

- Catalan / Català: Badiana (plant), anís estelat, anís d'estrella (fruit)

- Galician / Galego: Estrela de anis, anis estrelado

- Portuguese / Português: Estrela de anis, anis estrelado

- Basque / Euskara: Anis-belar txinar

- Italian / Italiano: Badiana della China, anice stellato

- French / Français: Badiane de Chine, anís étoilé

- German / Deutsch: Chinesischer Steranis

- Dutch / Nederlands: Steranijs

- Danish / Dansk: Stjerneanis

- Polish/ Polski: Badian właściwy

- Norwegian /Norsk bokmål: Stjerneanis

- Finnish /Suomi: Rusotähtianis

- Swedish /Svenska: Stjärnanis

- Turkish / Türkçe: Yıldız anason, Çin yıldız anasonu

- Русский / Russian: Кака́о, Шокола́дное де́рев

Etymology: the term badiana comes from the Latin " badius ", which refers to the brown color of the fruits of the plant. Badiana refers to the plant that produces star anise, which is popularly used as a spice.

The spice, the star anise, shares the anise name with the common anise, since they have a similar fragrance because both are rich in anethole in their essential oil. The star-shaped adjective alludes to the shape of its carpels, in a shape that resembles a star.

Scientific name: Illicium verum Hook

Etymology: The genus Illicium comes from the Latin "illicere", which means to excite, due to the intense aroma of the fruits of this plant.

Family: Illiciaceae

Origin: plant native to southwest China and Cochinchina.

Habitat: native to southern China, in Yunnan province.

Distribution: Buddhists took the badiana to Japan, where it can still be found today in many Buddhist temples. It grows wild or cultivated in China, Korea, Japan, Java, Philippines and the USA.

Description of Star Anise

Star aise or badiam (Illicium verum) is a perennial shrub of low height, that can measure between 2 and 5 meters.

The bark of the trunk is pale and its branches are erect.

The leaves are entire, with petiole and lanceolate, that can remember the leaves of the sweet bay (Laurus nobilis).

The flowers are solitary. They have 15 to 20 petals of yellowish green or pink, arranged in a spiral.

The fruit is a poly-achene, pedunculated, dehiscent and consisting of a set of 7-12 woody mahogany carpels arranged in the shape of a star.

Inside each carpel there is a seed, oval, flat, shiny and hard.

The fruit has an aroma that resembles the common anise, due to this, both spices share their wealth in anetol.

Important Note: adulteration of star anise

Star anise should not be confused with Japanese star anise or Japanese badiam (Illicium religiosum = Illicium anisatum); In this case, it is a toxic plant that should not be used in food or as a remedy.

Parts of the plant used of star anise

- Fruit: the fruit is edible and it is used in food as a culinary spice and medicinal plant.

Uses of star anise

  • Spice: its flavor is reminiscent of anise. It is used mainly in pastry and confectionery.

  • Medicinal: becasue its content in anethole, this plant receives great interest in phytotherapy. In Traditional chinese Medicine, it is very used as a natural remedy, specially by many of the cultures in the Asian continent.

Among its properties, star anise is used as an analgesic to treat the pains of intestinal cramps and rheumatic pains.

  • Ornamental: the Japanese usually plant it in temples and cemeteries.

  • Incense: in Japan and some regions of Asia, it is often used as natural incense to scent homes with its exquisite fragrance.

Composition of star anise

Composition of star anise
Components of star anise
Amount
(in ppm.)
Anethole (trans-anethole) 45.450
Estragole 6.500
Limonene 5.220
Caryophyllene 3.600
1,8-cineole 3.500
Feniculin 2.550
Linalol 1.400
Alpha-terpinene 1.310
Alpha-copaene 1.100
Allo-aromadendrene
1.050
Alpha-humelene 900
P-anisaldehyde 850
Beta-phellandrene 835
Calamene 650
Beta-copaene 500
Alfa-phellandrene 435
Terpinolene 400

The composition of the star anise mainly emphasizes its richness in aromatic components. Chemically, these components are terpenes, monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes, and are manufactured by plants as a natural defense. For example, eugenol is an insecticidal component and is a defense mechanism of the plant against its predators.

In medicinal practice, these compounds exert different effects on the body, which phytotherapy has historically collected in its traditional remedies.

Essential oil of star anise

Essential oil of star anise (5-8%) contains: Anethole (80-90%), estragole, limonene, caryophyllene, cineole, feniculin, linalool, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, p-cymol, beta-farnesol, bisabolene, alpha-terpinene.

Aromatic compounds are present in the essential oil of the plant:

Among all the components of the plant, the most abundant is anethole.

Anethole has effects on the nervous system, is analgesic, anesthetic, antioxidant, very aromatic and has a sweet taste.

It is used to treat cramps, pain caused by cramps and in confectionery, as a sweetener and flavor.

Estragole is the second most abundant component in this aromatic spice. Estragole or methyl-chavicol is found in abundance in basil, and in essential oil of tarragon. It has some toxic effect on the nervous system when taken in excess or in essential oil. In small doses, it is digestive.

- Organic acids: protocatechuic acid, shikimic acid and quinic acid.

- Saponins

- Tannins

- Carbohydrates: Starch

- Fibers: pentosans, resins, pectin, mucilages.

More information on star anise in the listing above

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This material is for informational purposes only. In case of doubt, consult the doctor.
"Botanical" is not responsible for damages caused by self-medication.

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