HOW TO GROW VERVAIN
Verbena cultivated plants
Within all verbenas, garden verbena (Verbena X hybryda) is the best known and used of all vervain cultivated species. It is a perennial plant in very hot weather, but usually grown as an annual plant.
The erect varieties can reach half a meter in height, but the most used are creeping varieties, which do not usually go beyond 30 cm.
Verbenas are plants with small leaves, dark green, irregularly toothed, with pleasing spice-like aromas. Flowers of various colors appear together in very dense florets and have varied colors (white, red, mauve, purple or pink)
They bloom from late spring and throughout the summer.
Varieties and species of verbena
Among the main ones, we have the following:
- Garden verbena (Verbena X hybryda) is the most used in gardening. It has been described above.
- Common verbena or vervain (Verbena officinalis): Not used practically in gardening. (More information about this plant in the above list)
- Purpletop vervain, clustertop vervain, Argentinian vervain, tall verbena,(Verbena bonariensis): It comes from Argentina and Brazil, although it is cultivated and naturalized in western Europe. It has dark purple flowers that are born in very elongated stems without flowers of more than one meter high. It blooms from summer to autumn. It is characterized by its resistance to drought. It is used in veterinary medicine as an abortifacient.
- Verbena canadensis: It comes from eastern North America. With creeping habits, it grows about 60 cm wide to 40 cm high dark. Purple flowers.
- Hardy verbena, vervain (Verbena hastata): From Canada and the United States, it is characterized by its spiky leaves and small purple flowers. It is very easy to grow. With expectorant and sudorific properties, it is used to fight colds, fever and stomach pain.
- Peruvian verbena (Verbena peruviana) from Peru and Brazil, it is a small creeping verbena with oval leaves that form a carpet on the floor where it spreads. It also very used as a hanging plant, especially the variety "Red Waterfall". With characteristic little but very vivid scarlet flowers. It reproduces by cuttings.
- Pink Verbena, toronjilcillo (Verbena laciniata): A South American verbena that grows up 30 to 40 cm, although it is much expanded. Finely divided leaves, grayish green with blue flowers in heads.
- Tuberous verbena, slender vervain (Verbena rigida): From South America, it is a plant that can reach 60 cm high. Its erect stems arise from tuberous roots. fragrant and oblong leaves. Pale violet flowers, although there are red varieties. It supports fine salinity and sea winds so it is a species that is quite used to plant by the sea. It is used in China for stomach ache.
- Seashore vervain, Brazilian vervain, Field verbena, spells herb, ōwī (Verbena litoralis): Erect plant from Chile where it grows wild up to 4000 meters above sea level. Oblong or lanceolate, serrated leaves. Flowers bluish white. Its uses are similar to those of Verbena officinalis, but it is especially used to combat malaria and cough or externally for blows or sprains (See Verbena properties in the listing above). You need organic matter and a mild temperature.
- Moss verbena (Verbena tenuisecta): Plant from Argentina and Chile. Prostrate form in dense clumps 15 to 30 cm tall and 7 to 15 cm wide, reminiscent of moss. Small, lanceolate finely divided green leaves. Its flowers are lilac. It needs very warm places and a quite dry, almost arid soil.
Picture of purple verbena (Verbena bonariensis)
It is quite resistant to drought. A weekly watering is usually sufficient once they are well adapted to the terrain. It is important not overwatering. You must leave a couple of days the soil dry before watering again.
Verbena gardening uses
Although it can be planted in pots, it is ideal for flower beds in public or private gardens which form very tight and elegant massifs. They are also used as hanging plants on balconies or terraces.
Verbena. Exposure and environment
It prefers sun but tolerates partial shade. It is a plant, lover of temperate or warm climates. It can not stand frost, so it is best to plant it in places where winters are not very hard and especially protected from winds.
It can be reproduced by seeds in the fall or spring. It is best to sow the seeds in late March. Keep the seedlings in a warm place at a temperature of about 20 or 30 ° C. Not very convenient to sow directly in their final place, especially when it comes to extensive plantations.
They can be transplanted into their final place about May 15. The plants take a long to germinate, sometimes more than a month, although the usual period is usually between 15 and 30 days.
- Reproduction by division or cuttings
They can also be reproduced by dividing young shoots in spring, by root cuttings in summer or autumn, or by division in late winter.
The cuttings should be planted horizontally, covering the central part with soil. From there, they will begin to take root in the central area. Once well-established, you can separate them.
Verbena. Soil, fertilizer and care
It prefers sandy soil with a basic pH, limestone type and good drainage. Fertilize every 20 days during the growing period with liquid fertilizer for plants.
In extensive plantations, it will be needed about 24 to 30 tons of ripe manure per hectare.
By spring, back in April, adding about 280 kg of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium exploiting the spring plowing. It may also be interesting to add half a tonne of calcium superphosphate per hectare and half of potassium sulfate.
Verbena. Harvesting and drying
Harvest must be carried out in mid-summer, about 1 month after flowering. It will be dried in the shade or with an artificial heat source, without the temperature reaches 35 ° C.
Verbena. Plagues and diseases
Verbena is a very hardy plant that usually does not present too many pests or diseases. Among some that may appear, we have spider mites and aphids.
More information on vervain in the listing above.
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This material is for informational purposes only. In case of doubt, consult the doctor.