Myopia or nearsightedness is a condition of the eye characterized on the the difficulty seeing objects that are distant, while those that are near can be seen well.
It is the opposite to hypermetropia. ( hyperopia or farsightedness)
This type of disorder can cause psychological problems in those people who do not accept the use of corrective glasses or consider them unattractive.
Other people, having a very high number of diopters, can present problems of insecurity or some difficulty performing some activities.
Consequences of myopia
Myopia causes learning problems in many boys or girls who are unaware they are in trouble focusing what is presented on a whiteboard or a screen. Many of the children who have it do not accept the use of glasses or feel bad about themselves , what causes them problems adjusting with the other boys or girls in the class.
It is important for everyone involved in the process of physical and intellectual development of children (Parents, teachers, monitors, etc.) to watch for possible symptoms of myopia. In this way, the problem can be corrected as soon as possible. Equally important is for children to wear corrective lenses, so adults have to do their best in order glasses can be well accepted by children.
It is important to control myopia, regardless of age, to avoid the aggravation of it, especially in people with severe myopia, those above 6 diopters. In this case, if appropriate measures are not taken, retinal detachment or glaucoma could take place.
Symptoms of myopia
The main symptoms of myopia are:
- Problems for distance seeing
- Increased eye strain
- Irritation and tiredness after eyestrain
- Closing of eyes when looking at objects at a distance
- Problems of fatigue in school work
- Eyes approaching to the page when reading
- Eye irritation
- Crossed eyes
- Need to watch closely TV, telephones screens, watches, computer screens, etc.
Causes of myopia
Myopia is caused mainly by the inability of the myopic eye to focus light rays onto the retina. The light rays rather than reflect on the retina, are reflected in front of it, causing blurring in vision of objects.
This inability to focus on the retina can occur because the following reasons:
- Physiological myopia: It mainly occurs in infants or children during growth period. As time passes, it improves as the person who has it gets older and the eye acquires the actual size. This may be caused by the following causes:
- Because the cornea and lens focus too closely. (Refractive myopia)
- Because the eyeball is too long, the beam does not reach the retina. (Axial myopia)
- Induced myopia: It can occur as a result of some diseases, such as diabetes, or certain drugs or medicines. A less common type of myopia is caused by injuries or illnesses in the retina or the nerves that transmit information to the brain (optic nerves)
- Pathological myopia: It is a progressive type of myopia . It can lead to a type of degenerative myopia.
- Nocturnal myopia: People with this type of myopia find very difficult to see at night or in low light
- Nearwork Induced Transient Myopia (NITM): People find it difficult to see far objects after having been focusing near objects.
The onset of myopia may be influenced by triggering factors such as heredity, poor nutrition especially deficient in vitamin B, Vitamin A, and vitamin C. Continued work at a short distance, eye strain or stress can also favor it.
Diagnoses and treatment of myopia
Any eye problem first requires a previous visit to a specialist who will provide you a diagnosis about it.
Myopia is solved with the use of glasses or contact lenses ( corrective divergent lenses ) to get proper focus of the distant objects.
The patient may also opt for a laser surgery (LASIK) to correct the shape of the cornea and achieve an appropriate approach. This allows to recover good sight without wearing glasses or contact lenses. This type of operation can be performed only in people whose eyes have acquired the final size.
The natural treatment of myopia is based on using a series of remedies that can help delay the onset of the disorder or to improve its evolution.