CULTIVATION OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE

(Helianthus tuberosus)

HOW TO GROW JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE

Description of the plant

- Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a plant of the Compositae family, related to sunflower, grown for obtaining its tubers, which are edible.

- In English it is called: Jerusalem artichoke, sunroot, sunchoke, earth apple, topinambour

- Annual plant up to 3m. tall.

- Stem erect, rough and reddish, with numerous ramifications.

- Leaves are alternate, large, stalked, oval-lanceolate, toothed.

- Flowers radiated forming blackish florets and ray florets with yellow flowers.

- It blooms in summer. Fruit in achene, 5 - 7mm.

- Roots thickened forming tubers, pale brown, red, purple or white, rich in inulin.

Jerusalem artichoke roots
Jerusalem artichoke roots

jerusalem artichoke
A general view of the plant

exposicionClimate

- Plant from tropical and subtropical climates, native to eastern North America, and introduced in Europe in the seventeenth century. Nowadays naturalized in this continent.

- Average temperatures from 18 to 26 ° C.

- In full sun.

- It can grow in the same places where you can plant potato and corn.

- It tolerates frost, although it does not flourish in very cold climates.

- Altitude between 300 and 650m. above the sea level. In India, it is described in altitudes of 3,600 m.

Ecological amplitude: H. tuberosus can be preferably grown at 300-750 m altitude (in India up to 3600 m). Agricultural areas, disturbed areas, grass and moorland, lakes, riparian zones, under human direction, urban areas.

Habitat in the Netherlands: In moist, nutrient-rich, sandy or loamy soils, especially along rivers, riverbanks and roadsides.

jerusalem artichoke
Flowers

sacoSoil

- Rustic plant that can grow in poor soils, but thrives best in areas rich in organic matter.

- Loamy and loose soil, sandy or clayish.

- It does not tolerate waterlogging, which promote disease development and hinder the growth of the tubers.

- PH between 4.5 and 8.2.

dibujo pala Crop-care

- Labor soil deep at least three weeks before planting.

- Plow the soil surface before plantation to condition it for planting.

- Control of weeds periodically during cultivation. However, this plant eradicates surrounding weeds, because it becomes so dense that few plants can compete. Usually invasive.

- Control of rodents and moles, which can attack the rhizomes.

- Control slugs coming to consume the entire aerial part of the plant.

- Use of fertilizers to produce better crop, amount of fertilizer: 4-8-4 or 4-12-4.

macetaPropagation of Jerusalem artichoke

How to propagate tubers?

- Jerusalem artichoke reproduces itself vegetatively by transplanting their tubers. This feature makes it an invasive plant, since it is difficult to eradicate all tubers.

- Plant the tubers in spring, as soon as the soil can be worked. Late planting reduces production.

- Whole tubers are planted or pieces of approximately 50g. as if they were potatoes.

- Tuber planting density: between 20,000 and 50,000 tubers / ha

- Cover the remaining tubers to a depth of 10cm.

- The tubers sprout after about 10 to 17 days after planting, when the soil temperature is at least 6 ° C.

sacoHarvest

- The tubers are harvested in late autumn or winter. These are small, so gathering them is quite laborious. It is almost impossible to harvest all tubers a plant produces, and possibly the following year new shoots will appear in areas close to the crop.

- The leaves, which are used for animal feed, can be harvested before flowering. Winter frost will blacken and make leaves fall to re-sprout in spring next year.

dangerDiseases and plagues of Jerusalem artichoke

The incidence of plagues and diseases is rare in this type of product. We can point out:

- White mold (Sclerotinia spp.): It causes early wilting of the leaves and stem and tubers rot.

- Mildew

- Rust

- Stem and sheath
blight

punto rojo More information on Jerusalem artichoke in the listing above

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This material is for informational purposes only. In case of doubt, consult the doctor.
"Botanical" is not responsible for damages caused by self-medication.