- 1 What is type 1 diabetes?
- 1.1 How to control diabetes?
- 1.2 Why is insulin administered?
- 1.3 What is insulin and what is it for?
- 1.4 Insulin benefits: why is it important to take it?
- 1.5 Types of insulin
- 1.6 What are normal blood sugar levels during the day?
- 1.7 What is the maximum glucose level allowed?
- 1.8 Importance of glycemic control in diet change
What is type 1 diabetes?
The diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to control the levels of glucose (sugar) in blood. There must always circulate glucose in the blood, 24 hours a day, because all cells need it as an energy source, both day and night. In type 1 diabetes, the main cause of glycemic lack of control is the lack of insulin segregation
Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes may also require insulin administration.
How to control diabetes?
Blood glucose levels (“blood sugar”) are out of control when you have diabetes, and they can be too high or low. Glucose is kind of sugat got from food, mostly from those that are rich in carbohydrates (or carbohydrates), such as sugar, rice, pasta, bread, legumes or fruits. If glucose is in excess or in insufficient quantity, it is harmful to health.
Why is insulin administered?
There are different types of diabetes and each case requires personalized treatment and supervised by an endocrine doctor. In some types of diabetes, such as type 1 diabetes , the use of insulin is necessary due to the body’s inability to produce enough of this hormone.
What is insulin and what is it for?
The insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas and has the function of reducing sugar (glucose) in blood.
Insulin benefits: why is it important to take it?
The decrease in blood sugar is achieved because insulin tells cells to take up circulating glucose in the blood . Without insulin, cells cannot capture sugar, and therefore, without insulin, cells cannot nourish themselves .
But insulin has other functions besides lowering blood sugar . When it is produced in greater quantity (normally, after eating), it is a sign of “there is energy” (we have just eaten) and this activates metabolic pathways related to anabolism or structure formation, such as creating fat reserves in the body or build muscle .
If the diet is high in fat and high in calories, the body’s fat production will be higher. Therefore, in these cases, when you want to lose weight it is interesting that the diet is low in fat and low calorie .
Types of insulin
Some people are too afraid of hypoglycemia and are allowed too high blood glucose levels, which are harmful.
The body always needs circulating insulin, in greater or lesser amounts . To avoid having to continuously administer it, there are different types of insulin.
The main ones are:
- Prandial insulin : those that are taken after meals. Its effect is fast (between 1 and 6 hours), so that the sugar contained in food can be assimilated well during digestion and hyperglycemia does not occur. That is, These types of insulins aim to replicate the peak of insulin secretion that occurs after food intake.
- Fast-acting insulin, regular or crystalline insulin : it takes effect after 30-45 min after being administered and it has effects for 5-6 hours (its action peak is at 1.5-3 hours). Examples: Actrapid .
- Ultrafast or fast acting insulin analogues (AAR) : very quick fast effect (15-20 min). Depending on the type, the effect can last 2-3 to 4 hours (effect peak at 0.5-1.5 hours). Examples: Humalog ( Lispro ) and Novorapid (Aspartic).
- Basal insulin : normally taken only 1 time a day, sometimes 2. They try to maintain a constant blood glucose during the night and during the hours of the day when they do not eat food ( normoglycemia on an empty stomach). Its effect is long lasting (between 4 and 20 hours).
- Insulins of intermediate action : it presents its peak of action between 4-6 hours and its duration is 12 hours. Generally, Its administration begins at bedtime to reduce the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia.
- Long-acting insulin analogues , basal insulin : begins to works 1 hour after being administered and its effect lasts 20-24 hours. Example: Detemir and Glargine ( Lantus ).
What are normal blood sugar levels during the day?
- During the night and in the morning : 90-150 mg / dl
- During the day and before eating : 70-130 mg / dl
- Two hours after eating (breakfast, lunch and dinner) : 140 mg / dl.
What is the maximum glucose level allowed?
Although sometimes the margin of being able to go up to 180 mg / dl is given. of glycemia after meals, it is recommended never to exceed 140 mg / dl .
It is possible that these levels are more difficult to assume in elderly people, but it is important for young women and young adults to avoid glycemic levels higher than 140 , due to the very harmful effect that hyperglycemia has on the body.
Likewise, levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) must be controlled in ranges lower than 6-7.
Importance of glycemic control in diet change
Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia should be avoided.
- Blood sugar levels are too low (less than or equal to 70).
- It is the most dangerous situation because the harmful effects can be immediate! Cells cannot work, which is especially dangerous for neurons. “Birds”, dizziness or fainting can occur.
- Food taken late on medication, taking too much insulin and / or inadequate diet (too little or too few carbohydrates)
- Playing sports and not eating an extra serving of carbohydrates.
- Symptoms: cold sweat and dizziness, headache, hunger, palpitations, tremors, impaired vision, difficulty waking up, irritability.
- Treatment :
- Drink half a glass of juice with sugar or half a glass of water with 2 sachets of sugar.
- Find out what has caused the hypoglycemia.
Nocturnal hypoglycemia :
Nocturnal hypoglycemia can go unnoticed:
- Symptoms: discomfort when waking up, difficulty waking up, headache when waking up, nausea, memory of nightmares or a difficult night.
- Dinners that are too light (slight hypoglycemia may occur during the night, while we sleep, without realizing it)
- Intense sport
- Inadequate medication regimen.
- Sugar levels are too high (greater than 180 mg / dl).
- Small hyperglycemias can be controlled, but they are a harmful situation for the organism, especially in the long term. High glucose damages the blood vessels, which deteriorate and make circulation worse.
- Causes: insufficient medication and / or inadequate diet.
If a person with diabetes passes out, they should never be given insulin. Fainting can have different causes, but if it is because you have low sugar and we give you insulin, the consequences can be serious.
Attention! Some people are too afraid of hypoglycemia and are allowed too high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). An adequate treatment pattern is one that allows avoiding hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.
More information on diabetes
1 July, 2020