Characteristics of male and female infertility

This article was endorsed by Irene Mazzuca - Doctor of Medicine from the University of Rome "La Sapienza"


What is infertility?

infertility is the inability of the woman or man to produce offspring.

Infertility is a problem that is increasingly growing.

It is believed that 20% of couples show or have showed infertility problems at some time in their lives.

When can you talk about infertility?

Infertility is temporarily encrypted over a period of one year by having sex on the most fertile days, without any contraceptive method being used, and without pregnancy having occurred.

Types of infertility

Infertility is increasing in modern societies

There are two types of infertility:

  • Primary infertility: Couples who have never been able to become pregnant
  • Secondary Infertility: Couples who have been parents at least once, but have not been able to become pregnant again.

Symptoms of infertility

Inability to get pregnant: After many attempts, she still maintains the period without becoming pregnant. It considers a period of at least 1 year of unprotected sex.

Causes that affect the fertility in men and women

people ina bar
Drinking too much alcohol can produce infertility

There are many causes that can lead to infertility. Currently one of the reversible factors that contribute to infertility is obesity. Excess body fat (not just weight) has been shown to cause metabolic problems that lead to loss of fertility. The solution is to change the entire obesogenic environment and remove all kinds of junk food (including sweeteners and light products).

Another possible cause that affects both men and women is continued exposure to all kinds of endocrine disruptors. These are substances that are in plastics, in food, in detergents, and even in pans. Hormonal or endocrine disruptors produce a hormonal effect on the body with the consequent decrease in fertility. This effect is reversible if a proper diet is followed and the main sources of exposure are avoided.

Causes of infertility in women

Among the most common causes of infertility in women we would have the following:

  • Anatomical changes, such as too large or too small uteri; nonexistence of the fallopian tubes
  • Deficient ovaries that do not produce eggs (ovulatory failure)
  • Fallopian tube obstruction
  • Endometriosis
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Hormonal disorders, such as the existence of too many male hormones leading to a lack of ovulation, a shortage of the hormone progesterone, which does not allow the maintenance of pregnancy
  • Vaginismus
  • Other factors, such as menopause, or amenorrhea, cysts, or tumors.

Causes of infertility in men

people on the grass
Wearing too tight jeans can produce infertility in men

In men, we could mention the following among the main causes:

  • Impotence or inability to maintain an erection, which prevents the penetration
  • The lack of sperm (azoospermia) or small amount of them in the seminal fluid (oligozoospermia)
  • Varicose veins in the scrotum (varicocele)
  • Testicles that have not fallen enough to the scrotum (cryptorchidism) or have undergone some process of torsion
  • Blocked sperm ducts
  • Too much heat in the scrotum
  • Ingestion of medicine, drugs or chemicals leading to a reduction of sperm
  • Presence of testicular tumors
  • Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, etc.
  • Any event that prevents proper cooling of the testicles influences male fertility. For example, inadequate clothing which puts his testicles under too much pressure, like tight jeans, working many hours seated, with the resulting compression of the testicles, or keeping them in contact for too long with a heat source or hot water, are causes that have been associated with a decreased fertility, because of increasing testicular temperature which leads to less moving sperm.

Tips for infertility

In both cases, the presence of emotional problems can lead to infertility by preventing adequate ovulation in women or poor sperm production in men.

Excess weight or extreme thinness produced in weight loss diets or in certain pathologies, such as anorexia, are responsible for the decrease in fertility in many cases.

Tips to improve the quality of sperm in men

Any event that prevents the proper cooling of the testicles influences male fertility. Thus, for example, wearing inappropriate clothing that puts too much pressure on the testicles should be avoided, such as the following situations:

  • Very tight jeans
  • Working for many hours sitting with consequent compression of the testicles
  • Having the testicles for a long time in contact with some source of heat or hot water
  • Sedentary lifestyle

Toxic and loss of fertility

The ingestion of tobacco and alcohol are very harmful and can lead to a decrease in fertility, in addition to deteriorating the quality of the genetic material and the motility of the sperm.

Alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy are responsible for many cases in which it is not carried out and leads to spontaneous abortions.

Similarly, alcohol consumption in males increases the temperature of the testicles, thus reducing sperm motility.

Excess coffee may decrease a woman’s chances of pregnancy. In the same way, ingesting foods that contain caffeine can have the same consequences (Caffeine is an alkaloid present in plants such as coffee, tea, mate, cocoa; orange, lemon. (Excites the nervous system, increases the heart rate and favors the elimination of urine. A long and abundant use produces overexcitation, prevents sleep and irritates the gastric mucosa.)

Diagnostics and treatment of infertility

In case you have this problem, the couple must go to a specialist to determine that there is not a possible abnormality, such as one of the listed above.

A study to test the amount and mobility of sperm in the man or the presence of eggs in women is strongly recommended.

At a couple level, it is recommended to take advantage of the stronger periods of ovulation to have intercourse when considering getting pregnant. A fresh water shower before intercourse helps you relax and lowers the temperature of the scrotum. High temperatures of the scrotum damage the sperm.

punto rojo More information on infertility.

Written by Editorial Botanical-online team in charge of content writing

6 July, 2020

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