Characteristics of renal insufficiency

This article was endorsed by Irene Mazzuca - Doctor of Medicine from the University of Rome "La Sapienza"

What is renal insufficiency?

Kidney failure characteristics

dibujo riñones sistema renal riñón
Kidneys drawing courtesy of © Drawings to paint

Kidney failure is a disease that can be acute (reversible) or chronic and progressive, characterized by the inability of the kidneys to properly filter urine.

Types of kidney failure

There are many types of kidney failure, which can be:

  • Acute kidney failure is one that occurs without prior notice. It can be a consequence of an infectious process (nephritis, cystitis, etc.), kidney stones (kidney stones), or hemorrhages, among other causes.
  • Chronic kidney failure, which represents a progressive loss of the kidneys’ ability to filter blood. It can be of hereditary origin or consequence of other diseases.
  • End-stage renal failure, in which case chronic disease has compromised the health of the kidneys so much that the patient will need a transplant or dialysis so that they can filter waste from their body.

Classification of kidney failure

It is necessary to classify the severity of the disease to determine a good treatment and to establish the recommendations and the degree of rigidity thereof. For example, in the advanced stages of the disease, the feeding guidelines must be very strict.

The severity of the disease is classified according to the ability of the kidneys to adequately filter urine, which is called glomerular filtration capacity or rate.

The classification of kidney failure according to the National Kidney Foundation is as follows:

Staging of kidney failure disease classification
Degree Cause Glomerular filtration (GF)
I Kidney damage with normal GF >90 ml/min
II Mild 60-89 ml/min
III Moderate 30-59 ml/min
IV Severe 15-29 ml/min
V Kidney failure <15 ml/min

Consequences of kidney failure

Kidney failure causes disturbances in most of the body’s organs and particularly a poisoning of the blood, called uremia.

Uremia is caused by accumulation of nitrogenous urea products that should have been excreted through the urine.

How is kidney failure known?

The main symptoms of kidney failure are:

  • Little urine in urination
  • Fluid accumulation in the legs, ankles or body
  • Itchy skin
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Thinness
  • Lack of body spirit, etc.

Why does kidney failure occur?

The main causes that can cause kidney failure are:

  • Diseases: Certain diseases can be the cause of kidney failure, such as diabetes (diabetic nephropathy), hypertension, lupus, infections, kidney stones, inflammation of the prostate, hypertensive crisis, tumors, untreated bacterial infections like gonorrhea, glomerulonephritis, hereditary diseases, etc.
  • Trauma: blows, falls, accidents at work, sports activities, etc. they can produce acute insufficiencies.
  • Ingestion of medications or toxic products: Some medications, especially the abuse of pain relievers or anti-inflammatories, or toxic products (alcohol or tobacco, solvents, lead, cleaning products, etc.) can cause kidney failure.

punto rojo More information on kidney failure

Written by Editorial Botanical-online team in charge of content writing

19 June, 2020

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