Plant Magazine of Botanical-online September 2017

Natural remedies

CUMIN CHARACTERISTICS

(Cuminum cyminum)

comino
In the picture: botanical illustration of cumin plant. At the bottom left of the illustration, a detailed flower.

Common English name: cumin, Jeerah

Relative of caraway (Carum carvi), cumin also erroneously called Roman, oriental, Egyptian or Turkish caraway.

Botanical classification of cumin

Kingdom

Plantae

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta
Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta
Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta
Flower plants

Class

Magnoliopsida
Dicotyledons

Order

Apiales

Family

Apiaceae

Subfamily

Apioideae

Tribe

Scandiceae

Subtribe

Daucinae

Gender

Cuminum

Species

Cuminum cyminum

- Spanish: comino, falso anís, comino hortense.
- Catalan: comí
- Euskera: kumino, uzta-belar
- Gallego: cumin
- Portuguese: cominho
- French: officinal cumin, cumin de Malte, faux anis
- German: Kumin, Kreuzkümmel, Pfefferkümmel
- Italian: cumino

Scientific Name: Cuminum cyminum L.

Taxonomic synonym: Cuminum officinale Garsault, Cuminum odorum Salisb., Cuminum hispanicum Mérat.

Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae

Habitat: Native Plant of Mediterranean region. It is believed to have originated in Turkestan, from where it spread, in ancient times, to Egypt, Ethiopia and the Mediterranean coast.

Geographic distribution: Today we can find cumin on the Mediterranean coast, India, Iran, Indonesia and China.

Botanical description of Cumin

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is an annual herbaceous plant of the Apiaceae family characterized by presenting its flowers arranged in umbels. The umbel is a type of inflorescence, similar to an inverted umbrella, which is formed because all the flower stalks are joined to the stem by the same point.

The cumin plant is of Mediterranean origin. It has an erect stem, little branched, not very tall, from 20 to 50 cm (up 80 in some cases). The inner core of the stem is white.

Cumin leaves are arranged alternately to the stem, petiole bonded. Hairless, elongated and divided. This plant is easy recognized because its foliage is divided into filiform segments. They are very similar to those of dill, which belongs to the same botanical family as cumin.

The inflorescence is a terminal umbel which have tiny hermaphrodite flowers, white or pink. Each umbel may contain between 3 and 5 radios.

The fruit of the plant is classified among the nuts and it is a diachene. They are ash brown, oval, narrow and pubescent, from 5-6 mm long and 1-2 mm thick.

Cumin composition (Cuminum cyminum)
per 100g.

Nutrient

Amount

Energy/Calories

375 kcal

Carbohydrates

44,25 g.

Proteins

17,81 g.

Fats

22,27 g.

Fiber

10,50 g.

Thiamin

0,62 mg.

Niacin

4,57 mg.

Iron

66,36 mg.

Calcium

931 mg.

Phosphorous

499 mg.

Magnesium

366 mg.

Potassium

1788 mg.

Sodium

168 mg.

Selenium

5,2 mg.

Aldehydes

30.000ppm.

Cuminil-alcohol

21.660ppm.

Cuminic aldehyde

16.000ppm.

P-cimene

12.639ppm.

Gamma-terpinene

11.800ppm.

Beta-pinene

6.600ppm.

Benzyl-cinnamate

1.341ppm.

Anisaldehyde

837ppm.

Used parts of cumin

- Seeds or fruits: small fruits are used as a spice, (only in blends like curry and chili), and phytotherapy.

- Essential oil: is used in aromatherapy, perfumery and as a flavoring additive.

Composition of cumin

- Carbohydrates

- Protein

- Fiber

- Minerals: iron, calcium, phosphor, magnesium, potassium, selenium.

- Vitamins: contains vitamins B and small amounts of vitamin C.

- Tannins with antioxidant properties.

- Carotene: xanthophyll, luteolin

- Monoterpenes: cuminic aldehyde, anisaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, beta-phellandrene, thujene, gamma-terpinene, limonene, linalool, myrcene, p-cymene, sabinene, carveol.

- Sesquiterpenes: caryophyllene, bisabolene, farnesol

- Phenylpropene: eugenol

- Glycosides: luteolol-7-glucoside and apigenol-7-glucoside. Responsible for spasmodic activity.

Cumin essential oil (2-4%): cumic aldehyde (25-30%), terpenes (cineol, pinene, phellandrene, terpineol), flavonoids.

Medicinal uses of cumin

Eupeptic, digestive, carminative, galactogogue, anthelmintic o, spasmolytic, slightly hypoglycemic, sedative. (More information in the listing above)

More information on cumin in the listing above.

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This material is for informational purposes only. In case of doubt, consult the doctor.
"Botanical" is not responsible for damages caused by self-medication.

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