Plant Magazine of Botanical-online September 2017

Natural remedies

Lily family, liliaceae

Lily family

The Lily family - Liliaceae - is formed by almost 4000 species in more than 280 genera and it is mainly constituted by grasses having bulbs, rhizomes or tubers, specially useful in the places where these plants are more abundant for its regeneration capacity in front of adverse situations, as the fire or the drought. Lianas also exists (Smilax apera) or trees (Dracanea draco). They can be in any part of the planet except in the Arctic zone.

Many are plants with very showy flowers, as a consequence to a long adaptation to pollinators mainly bees and birds, reason why they are fundamentally used in gardening (tulips, narcissus, lilies, hyacinths or amarillys) The aloaceae, apart from being known like gardening plants, are used for the elaboration of medicinal products and cosmetics.. Other, as the garlic, (Allium sativum), the onion (Allium cepa), the leek (Allium porrum) and the eatable asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, Asparagus acutifolius) are used like alimentary plants besides being medicinal. Many of them elaborate alkaloids and other toxic components, as the veratramine of the Veratrum album or the convallatoxine of the lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), one of the strongest cardiotonic products of the vegetable world.

Agavaceae, with more than 100 species, have a lot of importance especially inside the industrial world, specially Fucraea gender since plant fibers are extracted from this plant, as the Mauritanic hemp that is extracted form the Furcraea foetida. Some liquors are extracted from others, as the Mexican pulque, whereof mescal is distilled.

With the resin of the Dracanea draco, from Canarias, varnishes and medicinal products are elaborated.

Leaves (1): Simple, very varied. Generally parallel- veined, alternately placed at the base of the plant, although species with opposite or whorled leaves along the stem can be found. Some species show spine- reduced leaves as in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) or other, which although may ressemble real leaves, in fact they are true cladodes asin butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) The leaves of Aloe family members offer suculence and end in spines.

Stem(2): Underground, rizomatous, bulbous. Aerial erect stem, carrying ath the flowers at the end, although sometimes they are very short, so inflorescences remain at ground level, as in the case of Crocus o Colchicum. Some vines can be found, as in the case of prickly ivy, (Smilax aspera). More rarely ligneous trunks. (Dracanea, Nolina or Yucca)


Tulipa gesneriana


Flowers:

Actinomorphic (two places of simmetry- radially symmetical), not so frequently zigomorphic (a single plane of simmetry - bilateral simetry) placed in diferent kind of infloresces (spikes, racemes, panicles or umbels)


Perianth (3): 6 pieces, generally coloured of petaloid resemblance, which cn be free or joined in a tube.A detail of the perianth of

Androecium (4): 6 stamens, only 3 in Iridaceae.

Gynoecium: 3 carpels, generally united.

Style (5): 3 stigmas.

A detail of the flower of asphodel (

Ovary: Superior

A detail of the stamens of spider plant (

Lilium speciosum

Fruto (4): capsule o berry

Genera

The most important genera are the following:

ALLIUM
ALOE
ANEMONE
ANDROCYMBIUM
ANTHERICUM
APHYLLANTES
ASPARRAGUS
ASPHODELUS
BRIMEURA
BULBOCODIUM
COLCHICUM
CONVALLARIA
DIPCADI
ERYTHRONIUM
FRITILLARIA
GAGEA
HYACINTHOIDES
LILIUM
MAIANTHEMUM
MERENDERA
MUSCARI
NARTHECIUM
NOTHOSCORDUM
ORNITHOGALUM
PARADISEA
PARIS
POLYGONATUM
RUSCUS
SCILLA
SIMETHIS
SMILAX
STREPTOPUS
TOFIELDIA
TULIPA
URGINEA
VERATRUM

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