BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare) is a plant of the Poaceae family. It is a cereal , like oats, rice, wheat or corn. Traditionally, barley has been used to feed animals. Barley has been very important for agriculture and it still continues being so, just think that is the cereal that has a higher production after wheat, maize and rice.
There are many varieties of barley. All are characterized by hollow stems in the form of cane that are born from fibrous roots. At the end of each stem, it develops a spike-shaped inflorescence where the grains of barley or seeds will be formed.
Each spike consists of a main axis or rachis on which laterally spikelets are distributed arising directly from the rachis. Depending on the number of spikelets on the spike remaining after maturity, different types of barley are classified.
In 2007 136 million tonnes of barley worldwide were produced
Classes of barley
The barleys that are cultivated at the moment come all from the wild species (Hordeum spontaneum).
In barley, according to the number of spikelets, different varieties are classified as:
- Row barley and malting barley (Hordeum distichum) It is a variety in which, after ripening the spike, only the central spikelet remains . (See picture top right) This type of barley of two races is the oldest because it resembles the wild variety that also has the same number of races. We have archaeological remains showing its presence around 9000 years ago.
- Row barley or horse barley (Hordeum distichum): It is the one that maintains the three spikelets. It is the most modern type . It appeared about 6000 or 7000 years in Egypt or Mesopotamia.
- Four races barley (Hordeum tetrastichum): It is one that the two lateral spikelets remain after ripening . Varieties are intermediate in time.
Depending on whether the seeds are protected or not, we classify the varieties of barley:
- Barley with "protected seed": They are those in which the seed is covered by the lemma and palea. Varieties are used for brewing or animal consumption.
- Barley with "naked seed": They are those in which the seed is not covered by the lemma and palea. These are varieties that have evolved to be used in the manufacture of products for human consumption. (Breads, pastas, etc)
Origins of barley
The first archaeological evidence of the use of the wild barley as human food has been placed for 21000 years in the neolithic town of Ohalo II in the southwestern coast of the Sea of Galilee in the valley of Rif (Israel). Remains of this location show with perfect clarity the change from the nomadic cultures of hunters - collectors to the first sedentary civilizations that based their livelihood on agriculture and livestock.
The research was carried out by Israeli archaeologist Daniel Nadel between 1989 and 2000 on an approximate area of 2000 square meters. It was found, among other things, some dwellings, some outdoor fires adjacent to them , a tomb and tools which proved that the locals had managed to remain fixed there.
Today, the site is covered by water of the Sea of Galilee, so it is expected water comes down to go on with further research.