Orange tree description

What is an orange tree

Characteristics of orange tree (Citrus X sinensis)

Illustration of the plant showing some flowers and leaves

Common English noun: Orange tree, Sweet orange

Scientific noun: Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck.

– Synonyms: Citrus aurantium var. sinensis L. = Citrus bigardia Riss.

Family: Rue family – Rutaceae.

Habitat: Where do orange trees grow?

Native from South east of Asia, it was first cultivated in China and it can be found as an ornamental or alimentary tree in the Mediterranean countries.

Description of orange tree

Orange tree
Orange tree full of oranges

Perennial tree of Rue family – Rutaceae – up to 10 m., with a very round cup. Slightly prickly stems.

Coriaceous leaves, elliptical or lanceolate elliptic, acute and with a narrow winged stem

White flowers, very scented, with 5 petals and numerous stamens.

Fruits (oranges) are hesperidia with quite enough smooth rind and a sweet or sour taste, not bitter.

Collecting and storing:

Oranges should be collected in winter. Flowers and leaves in spring. Flowers should be dried by extending them on a dry surface. Leaves should be collected in spring and, as well as flowers, should be kept in a dry obscure place.

Components of orange tree

  • illustration
    Details of the plant with a fruit


  • Alkaloids: betaine, (fruit) caffeine (leaves and flowers)
  • Essences: limonene (fruit)
  • Acids: ascorbic acid (plant), citric, ferulic, glutamic, linoleic, oxalic, serine, etc. (Fruit)
  • Pectin
  • Amino acids: arginine, asparagine, histidine, proline (fruit)
  • Sugars: fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose (fruit)
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins: Riboflavine (vitamin B2), thiamine (vitamin B1) carotene (vitamin A), B6, Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (fruit)
  • Minerals and metals: Aluminium, calcium, barium, cadmium, copper, chrome, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, zinc. (fruit)

punto rojo More information on orange tree

This article was endorsed by Julián Masats - Technical agricultural engineer specialized in horticulture and gardening.
Written by Editorial Botanical-online team in charge of content writing

7 October, 2022

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